Singapore Maps & Facts

It spent S$230 million to revamp cabins on small aircraft on short-haul Asia-Pacific routes, installed more lie-flat seats in business class and now offers free wifi (for all classes) on 95% of its flights. Another S$50 million went to upgrading its lounge at Changi Airport’s Terminal 3. Scoot—Singapore Airline’s budget carrier—operates the narrowbody A320, which brings passengers from some of the region’s smaller airports to SIA’s hub in Changi. It’s not a mature aviation market by any measure.” Last year, over 327 million Indian passengers were expected to take domestic and international flights, up 73% from the previous year, according to Statista. As India’s economy keeps growing, so will air travel, and SIA is now poised to grab a significant chunk of that.

According to Malay tradition, the island was visited by a prince who came from the Sumatran empire of Śrivijaya and founded and named the city of Singapura. Portuguese records also have it that the city was founded by a Śrivijayan prince from Palembang. Sacked by the Majapahit Javanese during the 14th century, it was supplanted by Malacca (Melaka) but remained a port of call. Its modern history began with the arrival of Stamford Raffles of the British East India Company, who, in searching for a trading site, landed there on January 29, 1819. The port’s growth was steady, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the advent of steamships increased its importance as a bunkering station.

COGS includes the expenses necessary to manufacture a product including the labor, materials, and overhead expenses. SG&A costs are the residual expenses necessary to run the organization and incur costs less specifically tied to the cost of making the product. As part of its Q financial reporting, Apple reported $14.48 billion in operating expenses for the quarter. Of this, $7.70 billion was research and development, while $6.79 billion was selling, general, and administrative.

You want to make sure you’re including the right factors in your business expenses to ensure you can file accurate tax records. Claiming your expenses are too low could prevent you from receiving much-needed tax breaks, but claiming too much could mean you find yourself ultimately owing more than you expected. Certain companies will file their financial statements with one line for SG&A, while others – for example, software companies – will separately break out G&A and sales & marketing. However, the SG&A expense must be standardized to be compared side-by-side to industry comparables, and the average benchmark varies significantly based on the specific industry. SIA used the funds to prepare the airline for its post-pandemic future by expanding and sprucing up its fleet. It took delivery of 36 new aircraft during that time (bringing its total to about 200) and is awaiting 100 more from Airbus, Boeing and Embraer over the next few years.

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  2. For the full year of 2023, the airport handled 58.9 million passenger movements.
  3. Languages can even change over the generations and children may speak different languages and have different accents from their mother.
  4. More recently, the government has instituted immigration policies that target highly skilled workers.
  5. Therefore, operating expenses and SG&A are terms that are often used interchangeably, but differences can arise if, for instance, depreciation and amortization (D&A) are broken out in a separate line item.
  6. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government, and its legal system is based on common law.

As an extra measure, Goh has extended code-sharing or other partnership agreements with an extensive group of Asian and European airlines, many of whom once saw themselves as competitors to SIA. To restore profits, these airlines are concentrating on domestic routes and short-haul regional routes, allowing SIA to manage their international long-haul flights, which are sometimes money-losers for these airlines. Of course, long-haul international flights are what SIA does best—and most profitably. is sg&a fixed or variable “A key benefit of code sharing is it allows airlines to expand their international network in a cost-efficient manner,” says Leithen Francis, managing director of Singapore-based aviation consultancy Francis & Low. They are incurred in the day-to-day operations of a business and may not be directly tied to any specific function or department within the company. They are usually fixed costs that are incurred, disregarding the amount of sales or production incurred during a certain period.

Correctly calculating your selling, general, and administrative expenses can offer several key advantages to your business and to you, as a business owner. Do you need all of that office space you’re currently using, or could you sublease some of it to another business? Are you being as efficient with your electricity and heating costs as you could be? Think you could renegotiate your company’s internet and phone bill? Look through each of your business’ monthly expenses and make sure you aren’t overpaying for them.

SG&A, or “selling, general and administrative” describes the expenses incurred by a company not directly tied to generating revenue. Selling expenses included in SG&A are often divided into direct and indirect costs. To the south of the main island, the Southern Islands, a collection of about 60 islets, provide a different perspective of Singapore’s geography. These include Sentosa Island, a popular tourist destination with theme parks and beach resorts, and the Sisters’ Islands, designated as a marine park for conservation. Singapore, an island city-state in Southeast Asia, lies off the southern edge of the Malay Peninsula and has a total area of about 734 km2 (281 mi2).

Country name

OPEX are not included in cost of goods sold (COGS) but consist of the direct costs involved in the production of a company’s goods and services. COGS includes direct labor, direct materials or raw materials, and overhead costs for the production facility. Cost of goods sold is typically listed as a separate line item on the income statement.

Since Specific Gravity – SG –  is dimensionless, it has the same value in the SI system and the imperial English system (BG). SG of a fluid has the same numerical value as its density expressed in g/mL or Mg/m3 . Water is normally also used as reference when calculating the specific gravity for solids.

Methanol – Density and Specific Weight vs. Temperature and Pressure

Some firms classify both depreciation expense and interest expense under SG&A. If this is the case, then gross profit less SG&A equals pre-tax profit, also known as earnings before taxes (EBT). For example, companies are often required to have insurance policies and spend money to maintain their headquarters. If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox – please use

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Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government, and its legal system is based on common law. While the country is a multi-party democracy with free elections, the government under the People’s Action Party (PAP) wields significant control and dominance over politics and society. The PAP has governed the country continuously since full internal self-government was achieved in 1959, currently holding 79 out of 93 elected seats in Parliament.

How to Forecast SG&A

But as mentioned earlier, the line item can be broken out individually depending on the size of the cost and relevance to the core business model. Generally speaking, the lower a company’s SG&A expense, the better – since that implies the company is more profitable, all else being equal. From here, you can divide EBIT by revenue to calculate the operating margin. The difference between the SG&A expense and cost of goods sold (COGS) line item is as follows. KrisFlyer, SIA’s loyalty program, has also been turned into a profit center.

Taxes and other revenues

With over eight million members in 17 countries, KrisFlyer generated more than S$600 million in revenue in the first half to September, up 37% from the previous year. It is Asia’s last big and largely untapped market, with China largely shut off to outsiders and Indonesia relatively mature (dominated by big players such as Lion and Garuda). No other air market in Asia—or even few in the world—offers the same potential. “We were very badly affected by the pandemic because we didn’t have a domestic market,” Goh says. At the nadir, April and May 2020, SIA flew fewer than 11,000 passengers each month compared to 3.4 million in January of that year—0.3% its pre-pandemic capacity.

National air transport system

In addition, depreciation costs are often reported in this section of the income statement but excluded from SG&A as well. SG&A will be reported on the income statement in the period in which the expenses occur. Hence, SG&A expenses are said to be period costs as opposed to being part of a product’s cost. Since SG&A expenses are not a product cost, they are not assigned to the cost of goods sold or to the goods that are in inventory.

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